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Regarding the anterior abdominal wall
The major arterial supply to the interventricular septum originates from the
The oesophageal opening in the diaphragm is opposite
The right phrenic nerve
The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus. The right phrenic nerve passes anterior to the lung root and has sensory, motor and sympathetic fibres
In the intercostal space;
The neurovascular bundle travels between the internal and innermost intercostal layers. There is only one posterior intercostal artery and two anterior. The order of structures in the intercostal neurovascular bundle from superior to inferior is VAN. (Vein, artery, nerve). The first intercostal nerve has no anterior cutaneous branch and often no lateral cutaneous branch.
Openings in the diaphragm are T8 – vena cava. T10 – oesophagus. T12 – aortic. It is supplied by C345 (keeps the diaphragm alive). It has a role is forced expiration but is not used is quiet respiration.
Within the thoracic inlet
The thoracic inlet lies at T1 so the oesophagus at this level must also be at T1. The aorta goes from left to right but it does not lie in the thoracic inlet. The veins lie anterior to the arteries.
The caval opening in the diaphragm lies at the level of
T8 – Caval opening. T10 – oesophageal opening. 12 – aortic opening
The trachea :
It commences at C6. It enters in the midline. It is supplied by the vagus
What travels through the diaphragm with the oesophagus :
The azygos and hemiazygos usually travel through the aortic aperture. The right phrenic travels through the caval aperture. The oesophageal aperture contains the oesophagus, vagal trunks oesophageal branches of the gastric vessels, and lymphatics
Which is true of the sternum :
The jugular notch is part of the superior thoracic aperture and therefore lies at T1.
Which the of the following is not true regarding the surface markings of the left pleura
It crosses the 8th rib at the midclavicular line. The lung crosses the midclavicular line at the 6th rib.
Regarding the anterior abdominal wall:
The umbilicus receives cutaneous innervation from T10 and the nipple from T4. The neurovascular bundle lies between the inner and innermost intercostal muscle layers
In the thorax :
The carina lies at T4. The thoracic duct drains into the left brachiocephalic vein.
Regarding the diaphragm :
In the lung :
The horizontal lobe is absent in a small number of patients. The fissures create a smooth surface. The lingual is the lowest part of the upper lobe on the left.
Regarding the descending part of the thoracic aorta :
The descending aorta begins at T4, the END of the arch of the aorta. It is a component of the posterior mediastinum. The middle mediastinum contains the ascending aorta and is considered intrapericardial
With respect to the posterior mediastinum, all are true EXCEPT
Left dominance is :